Elena Cima explores the impact of domestic policies in the fight against climate change, in particular their role in facilitating "green" technology transfer.

Elena Cima, in her chapter about the role of domestic policies in the fight against climate change, has raised the question of how to effectively deal with ‘green’ technology transfer. In fact, this question is particularly pressing in the current international climate change dialogue as technological transfer has been recognized as one of the most effective contributors to greenhouse gas reduction efforts. However, GHG-reducing practices often originate in developed counties and have to be transferred to developing countries - which could not have the means or the opportunities to effectively implement such practices. As the main climate change and environmental instruments recognize, although globally we are facing common issue; in fact, every country is affected and affect the environment differently. Historically, developed countries have contributed to the current situation since the 18th Century, while developing countries are relatively new to the industrialization process. Thus, we observe that developing countries - even China, Brazil, and South Africa, according to the chapter - have lower per capita greenhouse gas emission than their developed counter part. This disparity in contribution to and in the fight against climate change has been recognized in both the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, though the establishment of the ‘common but differentiated responsibility.’ Moreover, both instruments recognize the potential impact that technological transfer could have in the fight against climate change. Thus, the developed counties signatories to the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol vow to assist their developing counterpart by, among other measure, technological transfer. Although internationally the benefits of technological transfer are wildly recognized, there are several barriers to an effective transfer of know-how and physical technology from developed to developing countries. First and foremost, direct and indirect costs, such as: access fees, administrative costs, executional costs and cost related to the technological market. Moreover, there are issues related to the protection of intellectual property rights. However, some argue that IPRs protection does not limit technological transfer - developing countries might not have the knowledge to take full advantage of the technology, or might not have the means. The difficulties faced by developing countries, in gaining access and exploiting cutting edge environmental technology, also impact their ability to attract and FDIs, foreign technology, and it even hampers the development of domestic innovations. Elena Cima points out that domestic polices are at the heart of technological transfer. In fact, without proper, strong local policies and an adequate legal framework there cannot be effective and efficient transferal of technology. Weak legal system and poor investment structure will obstruct and discourage FDIs and other transfers - from other stakeholders. National governments should prioritize policies and programs aimed at fostering greater technological efficiency, and at facilitating international investments and partnerships, so as to promote technology transfer and national sustainable development. Coupling domestic policies with international efforts will tackle in a more efficient way climate change and environmental protection.