The UN has climate talks every year and has done for the best part of two decades, and likely the big action will happen in Paris but before you have to look to Lima. 1. It is one step in an on-going process. This year you have already seen a ‘bonus extra’ UN climate summit inNew York in September, bringing together world leaders and engaging business and civil society too. There was also the US/China deal, the Green Climate Fund pledges, a steady, year-long stream of IPCC reports and a rapidly growing divestment movement. A key step on the way to Paris comes in March, with the pledging of what are known as the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, where countries outline the steps they propose to take to reduce emissions. It’s hoped that Lima will help clarify this process. 2. Action on climate change has a lot more political space. The UN climate summit, in New York, was so important. To build that momentum and get that political will early on, also referring to the recent US/China deal and slew of pledges to the Green Climate Fund. The main reason of the failure in Copenhagen was the relationship between the US and China. There were suspicions about the relationship between emissions reductions and primacy in the global economy. Now, that is changed: with the New Climate Economy report, climate change action is aligned with economic growth and it is not seen as a significant cost. 3. We’re still not nearly ambitious enough. As Tom Mitchell notes of the Green Climate Fund, the 9.3 billion dollars currently pledged falls well short of the G77 target of $15 billion; similarly, Jo Haigh is cautious: “When the US and China came out with that statement, we all thought that was a good thing, even if it’s not good enough, it’s definitely a move in the right direction.” Perhaps a trick is to look beyond Paris: the key period is between 2015 and 2020, and then through to 2025. Overall, however, Mitchell is pessimistic that we will be able to keep within the limit of two degrees global warming which many seem to work to even if it’s an appropriate target. The gLAWcal team EPSEI project Monday, 1 December 2014 (Source: Road to Paris)