Professor Huang describes the potential of NGOs activities regarding climate change.

Chapter 15 of the China NTCs deals with the development of NGOs in China. It has to be immediately highlighted that, as stressed at the beginning of the chapter, the use of the phrase “non-profit organizations” is not entirely correct. Professor Huang in this paper explains that in China these organizations were called “social groups” by the government before 1998 and then “civil organizations” after the change of the name of the bureau in charge of those organizations (from “Social Groups Administration Bureau” to “Civil Organizations Administration Bureau”). Recently, some scholars started to use the common phrase “non-profit organizations” probably because of their internationalization. As explained by the author, the reasons of this linguistic decision are probably due to the fear that the phrase “non-governmental” might imply that the government has no role to play or that such organizations might be anti-government. This explanation may not be easy to understand for a person not used to the Chinese culture and regime, but it actually is quite understandable. The Government (the State, in other words) is constantly part of everyday life in China and obviously it is strictly connected to the activity of NGOs. If we consider the background concerning NGOs in China, it has to be noticed that before 1978, only some “social groups,” under state control, were allowed. After that year the number of NGOs and their activities are incredibly increased. By the first quarter of 2016, the number of NGOs reached 664,800 and, for sure, the importance of human rights and participation play a crucial role in the process of flourishing. Their activities cover many areas, even if it does not mean there is no longer State control in these fields. To the contrary, the interaction and cooperation between the State and NGOs are strong and very important. The Government, after all, has a double responsibility on the registration and administration of NGOs, according to the Registration and Administration of Social Groups promulgated by the State Council in 1989. If on the one hand, this power of the Government clearly puts in doubt the freedom of the organizations, on the other hand it has to be noticed that a form of registration and consent is also required in other states of the world. Concerning the activity of NGOs in China regarding climate change, the complexity of the issue is something they have to face. An initial lack of knowledge has impeded a strong participation in the sector but sever strategies have been adopted, in particular the linkage to transnational organizations. I believe this concept of internationalization is fundamental when dealing with global issues such as climate change, especially in a country where the central power is extremely strict. The Chinese Government itself has recognized the importance of participation while dealing with climate change, because changes in the traditional ways of production and consumption, and consequently the participation of the whole of society, are required. In such a huge country with a huge population, the only way to fight climate change is making the public aware of the need to take care of the planet and NGOs represent essential actors in this process.